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Cite Sources: Chicago/Turabian Style

Help with the various citation styles (APA, MLA, etc)

NB? Parenthetical? Turabian? Choosing a Documentation System

The Chicago Manual Style includes two systems: notes-bibliography and author-date. The notes-bibliography style presents citation information in footnotes within the text and in a bibliography at the end of the text. In the author-date, or parenthetical, system brief citations in parenthesis appear within the text and a list of references at the end of the text.  Turabian is based on The Chicago Manual of Style, but is slightly simplified for student use. Your professor will indicate which system you should use. 

Book

Example Papers

Sometimes it's helpful to see an example of all of the parts of a citation style in action. These Sample Papers, courtesy of the Purdue OWL, shows what a perfectly-formatted paper should look like. 

NB Sample Paper

Author Date Sample Paper

Notes-Bibliography Style

Notes-bibliography documentation is discussed in Chapter 14. The first note includes all citation information, any subsequent reference is shortened. Footnotes are single-space and the first line is indented. List page numbers consulted in note. The bibliography is single-spaced and indented after the first line.

Here's some examples of different citations for the notes-bibliography documentation style. 

Books

Note:

Rick Beard, The Muse: A History of Music (New York: Random House, 2009), 9–18.

Beard, The Muse, 22.

Bibliography:

Beard, Rick. The Muse: A History of Music. New York: Random House, 2009.

Need more help? More information, including even more examples, can be found on the Purdue OWL's Chicago Guide: Books.  The exact rules in the CMOS can be found here.

Journal Article

Note:

John Stein, “Music in Plato’s Republic,” Music Journal 44 (2009): 442.

Stein, “Plato’s Republic,” 450–52.

Bibliography:

Stein, John. “Music in Plato’s Republic.” Music Journal 44 (2009): 439–58.

Need more help? More information, including even more examples, can be found on the Purdue OWL's Chicago Guide: Periodicals. The exact rules in the CMOS can be found here.

Online Newspaper

Note: 

Sherry Orange and Ron Pear, “Wary Centrists Challenge Health Care Reform,” Chicago Tribune, January 7, 2010, accessed January 8, 2010, http://www.tribune.com/2010/01/07/us/politics/health.html. 

Orange and Pear, “Wary Centrists.”

Bibliography 

Orange, Sherry, and Ron Pear. "Wary Centrists Challenge Health Care Reform." Chicago Tribune, January 7, 2010. Accessed January 8, 2010. http://www.tribune.com/2010/01/07/us/politics/health.html.

Need more help? More information, including even more examples, can be found on the Purdue OWL's Chicago Guide: Periodicals.The exact rules in the CMOS can be found here.

Websites 

Citations of website content can often be limited to the notes; in works with no notes, they may be included in the bibliography. 

Note 

"Americans and Privacy: Concerned, Confused and Feeling Lack of Control Over Their Personal Information," Internet & Technology, Pew Research Center, updated November 5, 2019, https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2019/11/15/americans-and-privacy-concerned-confused-and-feeling-lack-of-control-over-their-personal-information/

Bibliography 

Pew Research Center. "Americans and Privacy: Concerned, Confused and Feeling Lack of Control Over Their Personal Information." Internet & Research. Updated November 5, 2019. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2019/11/15/americans-and-privacy-concerned-confused-and-feeling-lack-of-control-over-their-personal-information/.

Need more help? More information, including even more examples, can be found on the Purdue OWL's Chicago Guide: Books.The exact rules in the CMOS can be found here.

Music Materials

Here's some examples of different music citations for the notes-bibliography documentation style. 

Sound Recordings

Note:

Cynthia Curtis and Deen Entsminger, Beloved Belmont, with Nancy Allen, Jo Lynn Burks and David Shamburger, BU Music, BU 1234-5-DIY, CD, 2009.

Curtis and Entsminger, Beloved Belmont.

Bibliography:

Curtis, Cynthia and Deen Entsminger. Beloved Belmont. With Nancy Allen, Jo Lynn Burks and David Shamburger. BU Music BU 1234-5-DIY. CD. 2009.

Need more help? More information, including even more examples, can be found on the Purdue OWL's Chicago Guide: Multimedia.  The exact rules in the CMOS can be found here.

Liner Notes

Note:

Richard Hoffman, liner notes to Schoobert: Piano Music, Daniel Landes, Nixos 8.88888, CD, 2010.

Bibliography:

Hoffman, Richard. Liner notes to Schoobert: Piano Music. Daniel Landes. Nixos 8.88888. CD. 2010.

Trying to cite a musical score? Scores are cited like books. See here for more information.  

Author-Date Style

Author-date documentation is discussed in Chapter 15. The parenthetical text citation includes only author's last name, year, and page number.  The reference list entry provides all of the citation information.

Here's some examples of different citations for the author-date documentation style. 

Books

Parenthetical:

(Beard 2009, 9–18)

Reference:

Beard, Rick. 2009. The Muse: A History of Music. New York: Random House.

Need more help? The exact rules in the CMOS can be found here.

Journal Article

Parenthetical:

(Stein 2009, 442)

Reference:

Stein, John. 2009. “Music in Plato’s Republic.” Music Journal 44:439–58.

Need more help? The exact rules in the CMOS can be found here.

Online Newspaper

Parenthetical: 

(Orange and Pear 2010)

Reference:

Orange, Sherry, and Ron Pear. 2010. “Wary Centrists Challenge Health Care Reform.” Chicago Tribune, January 7. Accessed January 8, 2010. http://www.tribune.com/2010/01/07/us/politics/health.html.

Need more help? The exact rules in the CMOS can be found here.

Websites 

Citations of website content can often be limited to the notes; in works with no notes, they may be included in the bibliography. 

Parenthetical: 

(Google 2016)

Reference:

Google. 2016. "Privacy Policy." Privacy & Terms. Last modified March 25, 2016. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/. 

Need more help? The exact rules in the CMOS can be found here.