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COM 1100: Citing Quality Sources

Resources to help you prepare your speeches and presentations

Oral Citation

Citation in COM 1100 is a little bit different because you need to use oral citations. That is, instead of using something like MLA style like you would in a paper, you need to credit your sources within your actual speech. What do you need to include in an oral citation?

A good rule of thumb is to ask yourself: What does your audience need to know to assess the source of information and look it up later?

Other Resources

If you need to cite sources in a paper, using a specific style like MLA, APA, or Chicago, be sure to check out the information on the Citing Sources Guide. There's examples, links and other helpful information on formulating proper citations!

Oral Citation Examples


  • What to include: Title + Author + year (if recency is important) + credentials
  • Example: Psychotherapist and Episcopal Priest, Ian Cron and his colleague Suzanne Stabile, a widely known Enneagram expert wrote a book that they published in 2016 called The Road Back to You. In it, they argue that…

Periodicals and Journals

  • What to include: Periodical Title (not article) + Date (if recency is important) + Author + Credentials and/or university where research was conducted
  • Example: “Dr. Andrew Bland, a communication disorders researcher at Indiana State University, published a review of empirical research on the Enneagram in the Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development. He found that…”
  • Example: “An article published this past May in Relevant Magazine quoted Richard Rohr, a spiritual writer and Franciscan friar who is an expert on the Enneagram in spiritual life….”


  • What to include: Base Address + Qualifications + Post Date (if given)  
  • Example: “The Enneagram Institute is a research organization formed in the late 90s to better understand the Enneagram. According to their website, the RHETI is a scientifically-tested instrument that can…"

Examples of Visual Source Citations

Need to cite sources on a PowerPoint? Check out the example in the slides below.

What Kinds of Sources Should I Cite?

What kinds of sources should you be using in your speeches? Your speeches should have a healthy mix of A & B sources and should avoid C sources.

  • Scholarly, Peer Reviewed Articles
  • Books
  • Interview with an Expert
  • Magazine Articles
  • Newspapers
  • Reference Sources (e.g., music encyclopedia, almanacs, etc.)
  • Documentary featuring Experts
  • Websites with direct and authoritative relevance to topic (e.g., American Psychological Association)
  • Wikipedia
  • Websites where better quality sources are readily available (Web MD, commercial websites, biased websites)

Note: These can be good for gaining broad knowledge about your topic and pointing you to quality primary sources, but they should not be used as your primary sources.

Note: if you use a quote from Buzzfeed to add humor to a speech, show a Youtube video, or include a picture from a website, your instructor most likely wouldn’t consider those to be “research” sources—just places where you accessed bits of supporting material. If you have questions about what counts as a source, ask!