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Art: Citing Sources

How to find art materials here, there, and everywhere.

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"Stylish" Reference Books

NB? Parenthetical? Turabian? Choosing a Documentation System

The Chicago Manual Style includes two systems, notes-bibliography and author-date. The notes-bibliography style presents citation information in footnotes within the text and in a bibliography at the end of the text. In the author-date, or parenthetical, system brief citations in parenthesis appear within the text and a list of references at the end of the text.  Turabian is based on The Chicago Manual of Style, but is slightly simplified for student use. Your professor will indicate which system you should use. 

Notes and Bibliography

Notes-bibliography documentation is discussed in Chapter 14 (beginning on page 653). The first note (N) includes all citation information, any subsequent reference is shortened. Footnotes are single-space and the first line is indented. List page numbers consulted in note. The bibliography (B) is single-spaced and indented after the first line.

N:  Rick Beard, The Muse: A History of Music (New York: Random House, 2009), 9–18.

N:  Beard, The Muse, 22.

B:  Beard, Rick. The Muse: A History of Music. New York: Random

          House, 2009.

Journal Article
N:  John Stein, “Music in Plato’s Republic,” Music Journal 44 (2009): 442.
N:  Stein, “Plato’s Republic,” 450–52.
B:  Stein, John. “Music in Plato’s Republic.” Music Journal 44 (2009):
Online Newspaper Article
N:  Sherry Orange and Ron Pear, “Wary Centrists Challenge Health Care Reform,” Chicago Tribune, January 7, 2010, accessed January 8, 2010,
N:  Orange and Pear, “Wary Centrists.”
B:  Orange, Sherry, and Ron Pear. "Wary Centrists Challenge Health
            Care Reform." Chicago Tribune, January 7, 2010. Accessed
            January 8, 2010.


Author-date documentation is discussed in Chapter 15 (beginning on page 785). The parenthetical text citation (T) includes only author's last name, year, and page number.  The reference list entry (R) provides all of the citation information.


T:  (Beard 2009, 9–18)
R:  Beard, Rick. 2009. The Muse: A History of Music. New York:
             Random House.

Journal Article

T:  (Stein 2009, 442)
R:  Stein, John. 2009. “Music in Plato’s Republic.” Music Journal

Online Newspaper Article

T:  (Orange and Pear 2010)
R:  Orange, Sherry, and Ron Pear. 2010. “Wary Centrists Challenge
            Health Care Reform.” Chicago Tribune, January 7. Accessed
            January 8, 2010.

Musical Materials

Sound Recordings -  Are discussed on page 765, please consult the manual! The elements are presented in the following order: Composer, Title of recording, with Performer's name, Manufacturer/Label, Label number, copyright and/or production dates, and format (CD, LP, MP3 file).

N: Cynthia Curtis and Deen Entsminger, Beloved Belmont, with Nancy Allen, Jo Lynn Burks and David Shamburger, BU Music, BU 1234-5-DIY, CD, 2009.
N: Curtis and Entsminger, Beloved Belmont.
B: Curtis, Cynthia and Deen Entsminger. Beloved Belmont. With Nancy

          Allen, Jo Lynn Burks and David Shamburger. BU Music BU
         1234-5-DIY. CD. 2009.

Liner Notes - The elements are presented in the following order: Author, "liner notes to...," Album title, Performer's name, Label, Label number, format and Copyright date.

N: Richard Hoffman, liner notes to Schoobert: Piano Music, Daniel Landes, Nixos 8.88888, CD, 2010.
B: Hoffman, Richard. Liner notes to Schoobert: Piano Music. Daniel
          Landes. Nixos 8.88888. CD. 2010.

Musical Scores are treated like books (see page 762).

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