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Music: APA Style

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What is APA?

APA style is a documentation system developed by the American Psychological Association. The rules of APA style are found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. APA style uses brief in-text citations and a reference list at the end of the paper.

APA Manual

There are also copies of the APA Manual in Reference and on reserve at the Circulation Desk.

More Help

Sample Citations - Books

One author:

Cornwall, J. (2010). Bootstrapping. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
     Hall.

More than one author or editor:

Chandler, M. & Littlejohn, R. (Eds.). (2008). Polishing the Chinese
     mirror: Essays in
honor of Henry Rosemont, Jr. New York: Global
     Scholarly Publications.

Work in an edited collection:

Fingarette, H. (2008). Getting rights right.  In M. Chandler & R. Littlejohn
   (Eds.), Polishing the Chinese mirror: Essays in honor of Henry
    Rosemont, Jr.
(pp. 110-126). New York: Global Scholarly
    Publications.

Sample Citations - Articles

Article in Journal Paginated by Volume:

Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.

Harlow, H.F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal
     articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55,
     893-896.

Article in Journal Paginated by Issue:

Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number is indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30),
     5-13.

Article in a Magazine:

Henry, W.A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools.
   Time, 135, 28-31.

Article in a Newspaper:

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy
     policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

Article in a Database:

When referencing a print article obtained from an online database, provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work). This will allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database. For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis.

 Smyth, A.M., Parker, A.L., & Pease, D.L. (2002). A study of enjoyment
     of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125.

Sample Citations - Web Sites

Page from a web site with no author:

New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21,
     2001, from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/story_13178.asp

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